Study of the influence of crossbite on the size of the apical area in a child population by analyzing panoramic X-ray.

The apical area is the space in the maxillary bones that contains teeth during and is subsequently occupied by the apices of the permanent teeth. Its dimensions are easy to perceive and determine by observing a panoramic X-ray. Our objective was to analyze the influence of crossbite on the size of the anterior and mesial apical area in Caucasian children.
Based on the ortopantomograph of 353 patients in mixed dentition and crossbite, the sizes of the apical areas of the four hemiarches were studied using the Tps Dig Version 2® computer program. These data were subjected to statistical analysis using the SPSS 22.0 for Windows program and applying the methods of descriptive statistics of quantitative variables, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, the non-parametric test Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test, and the paired Student t-test.
In the group of boys, average values in the superior-mesial, superior-anterior, inferior-mesial and inferior-anterior apical areas of the crossbite were 173.43, 99.85, 180.32 and 87.56 respectively, with the lower values being in the hemiarch without malocclusion. In the group of girls, for the same apical areas, average values were 165.64, 94.24, 168.62 and 83.34 respectively, with all the highest values being in the hemiarch with crossbite, except for the inferior-mesial apical area. Statistically significant differences were found in the hemiarch with crossbite between both genders in the superior-anterior, inferior-anterior and inferior-mesial apical areas, with the significance being 0.001, 0.029 and 0.001 respectively, while in the hemiarch without malocclusion significance was observed in the superior-mesial, superior-anterior and inferior-mesial apical areas, with values of 0.004, 0.001 and 0.004, respectively.
Crossbite affects the size of the anterior apical area in both arches and in both genders. The mesial apical area is influenced by this malocclusion in the jaw in boys and in the maxilla girls.

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